Exercise 4: Art Through The Ages: Modern Art (Week 7)


19th Century

Prior to the 19th century, artists were most often commissioned to make artwork by wealthy patrons, or institutions like the church. Much of this art depicted religious or mythological scenes that told stories and were intended to instruct the viewer. During the 19th century, many artists started to make art about people, places, or ideas that interested them, and of which they had direct experience. With the publication of psychologist Sigmund Freud’s The Interpretation of Dreams (1899) and the popularization of the idea of a subconscious mind, many artists began exploring dreams, symbolism, and personal iconography as avenues for the depiction of their subjective experiences.

Challenging the notion that art must realistically depict the world, some artists experimented with the expressive use of color, non-traditional materials, and new techniques and mediums. One of these was photography, whose invention in the 1830s introduced a new method for depicting and reinterpreting the world. The Museum of Modern Art collects work made after 1880, when the atmosphere was ripe for avant-garde artists to take their work in new, unexpected, and “modern” directions.


Resources : https://www.moma.org/learn/moma_learning/themes/what-is-modern-art



20th Century


The twentieth century was one of particular worldwide upheaval, ranging from wars to economic downturns to radical political movements. No one can disagree that the years between 1900 and 2000 were years of extreme change for artists all over the world. These changes were boldly reflected in the works of avante-garde artists throughout the century. Classical art was being challenged more and more as waves of nationalism and imperialism spread over the world in the early half of the twentieth century.


Artists explored extreme and varying themes in the years before and after World War I, and those same themes were revisited in the aftermath of World War II, creating an interesting parallel. This article is divided into two sections: 1900-1945 and 1945-2000 and focuses on art themes that captured the talents and ideas of some of the most well known artists around the world.



Resources : https://owlcation.com/humanities/20th-Century-Art-Movements-with-Timeline



Art After 1945



1945-Present – Abstract Expressionism

World War II (1939-1945) interrupted any new movements in art, but art came back with a vengeance in 1945. Emerging from a world torn apart, Abstract Expressionism discarded everything – including recognizable forms – except self-expression and raw emotion.


Late 1950s-Present – Pop and Op Art

In a reaction against Abstract Expressionism, Pop Art glorified the most mundane aspects of American culture and called them art. It was fun art, though. And in the “happening” mid-60s, Op (an abbreviated term for optical illusion) Art came on the scene, just in time to mesh nicely with the psychedelic music.



In the last thirty-odd years, art has changed at lightning speed. We’ve seen the advent of performance art, conceptual art, digital art and shock art, to name but a few new offerings. As we move toward a more global culture, our art reminds us of our collective and respective pasts. The technology with which you’re reading this article will surely be improved upon and, as it is, we can all keep (nearly instantly) abreast of whatever comes next in art’s history.


Resources : https://www.thoughtco.com/quick-rundown-of-art-eras-182703






Exercise 1

Exercise 1: Element of Art: Line and Color (Week 1 & 2)


The Basics drawing marks: points, line area (Landscape)


  1. An element of art that is used to define shape, contours and outlines also to suggest mass and volume. The characteristics lines is direction, focus, feeling, length and width.


  • Width – thick, thin, tapering and uneven
  • Length – Long, short, continuous and broken
  • Direction – horizontal, vectical, diagonal, curving, obiliqu and parallel
  • Focus – Sharp, blurry and choppy.
  • Feeling – Sharp. Jagged and smooth


  1. Type of Lines :


  • Outlines – Lines made by the edge of an object or its silhouette
  • Contour Lines – Lines that describe the shape of an object and the interior detail
  • Expressive Lines – Lines that are energetic and catches the movement and gesture of an active figure



Examples of Lines


Color wheel


Color Wheel is a simple tool that can help us think about color. It is also one of the most powerful tools available for home decorating. The color wheel is basically a circle of colors represented in the color spectrum. A typical color wheel is made up of only 12 colors. Learn how these 12 combine and you will be able to create many great looking color schemes.



 Primary, secondary & tertiary color


Primary color

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  • These color cannot be mixed, they must be bought in same form
  • Red, Yellow and Blue


Secondary color


  • These colors are created by mixing two primaries
  • Orange, violet and Green


Tertiary color


  • Mixing a primary with secondary
  • Red orange, Yellow Green, Blue violet




Monochromatic color

Monochrome Color

  • One colour is used but in different values and intensity
  • For example, dark Brown – Brown – Light Brown



The colour of Monochrome Color


Neutral color


Example of Neutral color


  1. What is Neutral color ?
  • Neutral colors is the colors that lacking hue, usually they are very light colors such as gray, beige and taupe (brownish-gray). Neutral colors usually dusky in nature and may call “achromatic”.


  1. The meaning of neutral color is,
  • Modest, quiet, pale, light, harmonious


  1. Implications:
  • Natural, timeless, classic, unbiased, harmless


  1. Associations:
  • Examples, Stone, sand, coral, packaging


Project 2 (Final Project)

Project Progress

Subject Matter : Fish (Ikan Koi)



Step 1 : For the first step, I have formed parts of the koi fish fin. By using wire, I cut the wire to the appropriate size.



Step 2 : After cutting, I make the shape and tie neatly with a finer wire.



Step 3 : Example of the fin after the tie.



Step 4 : After that, I wrap the part by using aluminum foil.



Step 5 : Examples of fin finished parts with aluminum foil.



Step 6 : Creating a shape of a koi fish body also using a wire and tied up neatly.



Step 7 : Wire ready to be formed



Step 8 : After that, I inserted the paper to reveal the body shape of the fish and harder.



Step 9 : Ready to make the fish body by inserting the paper into the wire.



Step 10 : After that, I wrap the fish’s body with aluminum foil for more tidy.



Step 11: The wire is used to tie aluminum foil.



Step 12 : The fish scales part, I use hard aluminum by cutting a small half-round and affixed to the entire koi fish body.



Step 13: Using a hot glue gun, I glue the fins and scales to the fish body.



Step 14 : I use gold and black spray on fish body.



Step 15: For the fish site, I use a mounting board to sit like a box like a pool. Blue plastic is used to reveal like water.



Step 16 :  Cork is used as a fish stand. I use 2 corks and other ingredients to be more interesting.

The Final





Project 1 – Geometri pattern and monochrome colour

Examples of geometri pattern


A pattern, other than the use of a term that means “Template” is often seen in the world or in man-made designs. Therefore, the elements of repeating patterns in a way that can be expected. A geometric pattern is a pattern forming geometric shapes and typically use the form repeatedly and the same.

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Examples of Geometric Pattern


Monochrome Colour


  • Monochromatic colors are all the colors (tints, tones, and shades) of a single hue.
    Example of a monochromatic color scheme
  • Monochromatic color schemes are derived from a single base hue and extended using its shades, tones and tints. Tints are achieved by adding white and shades and tones are achieved by adding a darker color, grey or black.


The examples of monochrome color

Project 2 – Sketch Drawing (Idea)

Idea 1

Subject matter : cat



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The main material will be use to make this sculpture is wire

Idea 2

Subject matter : bird



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The main material is wire, newspaper and glue

Idea 3

Subject matter : leaf



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The main material to make this sculpture is wire and aluminium foil

Idea 4

Subject matter : fish





To make this sculpture, i use the material of wire, newspaper, glue, aluminium and others. The shape of body, i will use the wire and the aluminium foil, i use to make the fish fins. This sketch idea was proceed by Sir Snazlan.

PROJECT 2 -Preparation (sculpture)

Early Years

Elizabeth Berrien, godmother of the contemporary wire sculpture movement, was born in 1950. All her life, she has had an intuitive affinity for animals. As a small child she would stretch out on the lawn for hours, studying the goings-on of ants and other small insects. She would gently catch honey bees in her bare hands, hold them awhile, and let them go again. At age five, gazing at the ceiling during nap time, she visualized a long line looping back on iteslf. Picking up two pencils and a ball of string, she invented a crude form of knitting to make a tiny blanket for her pet turtle. The turtle rejected the gift, but Berrien continues to pioneer new uses for fiber.

wire sculptor elizabeth berrien
dragonfly wire sculpture By kindegarten, Elizabeth was an avid reader. Her scores for spatial relationships and math were “off the scale;” later she skipped fourth grade. At age thirteen Elizabeth Berrian was admitted to Mensa, the “genius society”, where she had a memorable meeting with Buckminster Fuller. As a high school sophomore she came in sixth in a statewide math competition, against a field of juniors and seniors. Her love for plane geometry and topology were vital to her later explorations of wire sculpture.
High School

In high school, Elizabeth had difficulty expressing herself creatively. She could see the energy lines that made animals beautiful, but couldn’t translate them on paper. Decades later, she would learn that she was born left-handed. When her efforts at drawing and painting ended in frustration, Elizabeth abandoned all hope of ever expressing herself as an artist.

And then, a miracle. Placed in a sculpture class against her vociferous objections, Elizabeth came under the influence of teacher Kenneth G. Curran. Under his astute tutelage, Elizabeth developed a whole new approach to art – to stop struggling against that which did not work, and start exploring areas which did work. Mr. Curran trained Elizabeth to train herself, using a lifelong technique of creative problem-solving (one good problem, properly solved, should spawn at least ten good new problems).

picasso cat wire sculpture Curran made Elizabeth class monitor, freeing her from fixed class assignments and stipulating that she learn to use all the equipment (kilns, looms, welding torches, etc). While her efforts in these areas were more satisfactory than works on paper, Berrien was still seeking a comfort zone. At last, Curran gave her a roll of wire, telling her, “Here, kid, take this wire and mess with it”. Using wire as a mobile inkline was comforting – if a line wouldn’t do what she wanted, she could tweak it around til she liked it better. Berrien still has her first crude wire sculpture, from 1968: Picasso’s Cat. Her parents hid it for years so she wouldn’t throw it out.
While Kenneth Curran recommended art school to many of his pupils, Elizabeth Berrien was not among them. In his words, “You’d have a lousy time, kid. They’d think you were too obsessive over the wire, and they’d want you to balance it out with all that other stuff that gave you so much grief. Besides, you’re a non-conformist. You’re doing a good job not being influenced by Alexander Calder, but most college art teachers have a personal mandate to influence the hell out of their students. Just go out there and have a life, the wire will take care of itself.”

[In the 1980’s, Kenneth G. Curran passed away. Elizabeth stayed in touch after graduation, and is grateful that she had the opportunity to thank her creative mentor for setting her on the journey of life. In her dreams, she still visits Curran his classroom and gains new insights].


Example Elizabeth Berrien Artwork


PROJECT 1 – Progression

Media and material


This is the media and material that i used to make the sketches



STEP 1 : Firstly, I draw the sketches of the idea that was proceed




STEP 2 : After that, I began the color of each section on the sketches that were painted using different monochrome colors



STEP 3 : Continuing the color in each section. After that, by using markers to create outlines



STEP 4 : After that, I colored at the end section (flower)



STEP 5 : Add a bit of pattern by using the marker on the doodle section



Final project 1


This is the final of my project

Project 1 – Preparation

motive/ pattern (Idea)


IDEA 1 : Cat sketches combined with flora elements (mushrooms)


IDEA 2 : Combine geometric patterns with flower patterns (madala)


IDEA 3 : Using geometric patterns in cat painting and organic elements on the leaves as the background of the cat’s painting.


IDEA 4 : Combine geometry and organic patterns. Use multiple patterns on the sketches such as round shape, doodles, squares and more. (This idea that were proceed by Sir Snazlan)

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